What Children Should Learn at School for Tomorrow's Citizenship

A.N.Maheshwari

It is alleged that the learning in schools is driven by the requirements of public examinations and gets further confined by the prescribed syllabus and the curriculum. This type of learning can at best result in acquiring facts and knowledge, and is generally not directly related to the immediate life of learners or of their future needs, when they will become citizens. Therefore, there is a concern that the precious years of schooling should be optimally used for forming skills and values essential for an effective adult citizenship. In the following, skills that every student should learn during the schooling have been identified stage-wise. These skills have been classified in broad categories:

For each of the above categories skills/competencies have been spelt out for the primary, upper primary and the secondary stages. It is envisaged that the learning will continue to be around the traditional school subjects, namely, language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, health and physical education. But acquisition of knowledge of concepts and facts of these disciplines from the teaching-learning specially during the first ten years of the general education cannot be made an end in itself. The learning experiences should result in formation of skills and values, for they will be essential for living effectively the life of a citizen.

Achievement of this objective will be possible only with a paradigm shift in the schooling process and concurrently in teacher education. For now teachers will have to shift their role from teaching of subjects as per the prescribed syllabus to helping each of their students in acquiring the general skills. Schools must accept this challenge.

It may be appreciated that evaluation of these skills will have to be the responsibility of the school of the learner and not that of the Board of Education that conducts public examination for certification, as skills can best be measured individually and not through common public examinations.

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General Skills for Effective Adult Citizenship

 

During the first ten years of general education schools give to children learning experiences in curricular areas namely Mathematics, General Science, Social Science, Languages, Art, Health and Physical Education. As outcome of these learning experiences, following skills, independent of the textbook content, should develop in each and every child. These skills are non-negotiable. Therefore, each school in spite of its constraints of infrastructure and resources has to assume the responsibility for ensuring their attainment in each of its students. These general competencies have been identified separately for the Primary, Upper Primary and Secondary stages.

 

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COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS

 

 

S.N.

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1

Computations using four fundamental operations

- Be able to compute price of items purchased for daily use

-Be able to solve simple problems related to real life and world of work using fundamental operations.

 -Be able to solve simple problems related to real life and world of work.

 

-Oral testing

-Assignments

-Quiz

2.

Computation of percentage, profit and loss, income tax, discount etc.

-Be able to work out profit and loss in daily life transactions.

-Be able to compute profit and loss in real life transactions and express them as percentages.

- Be able to compute profit and loss in different situations and express them as percentages.

-Be able to compute income tax, sales tax, discounts insurance premium, etc.

-Be able to appreciate concepts such as cost of living index, death rate and birth rate etc.

-Practical exercises

-Assignments

-Class tests

3.

Computation of ratio and proportion.

 

- Be able to solve problems relating time-distance, time-work, work-person etc.

-Be able to handle situations involving time -distance, time - work and work - person relations.

 

 

-Assignments

- Class work

-Class tests

4.

Computation of interest

 

-Be able to compute simple and compound interest in situations of loan and deposits etc.

-Be able to compute simple and compound interest, higher-purchase installments

-Be able to appreciate changes in, population, food production etc. --Be able to compute depreciation/appreciation of movable and immovable assets such as land, building, shares, vehicles etc.

-Activities

-Assignments

-Projects

5.

Measurement/ computation of length, area and volume and time

- Be able to handle day-to-day transactions involving measurement of length, area and volume.

- Be able to measure /compute surface area/volume of simple objects such as triangles, bricks, play field, cube, room, water storage tank, cricket ball etc.

-Be able to measure lapse of time between two events

-Be able to measure/compute area of irregular figures such as fields, play ground etc.

-Be able to compute cost of whitewashing of a room, cost of digging a well etc.

-Assignments

-Class work

-Group test

 

 

6.

Interpretation of data from graph/chart/map

 

-Be able to read simple graphs, bar graphs from newspapers and magazines etc. and draw meaningful conclusions.

-Be able to read and interpret maps, graphs, histograms, pie charts from newspapers, magazines etc.

-Practical exercises

-Assignments

-Class tests

7.

Graphical representation of data

 

-Be able to represent data as a graph, bar chart/ pie chart. For example weather data on variation of rain, temperature and pressure etc.

-Be able to represent data related to world of work and life using appropriate mode such as graphs, charts etc.

-Practical exercises

-Assignments

-Class tests

 

 

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TECHNOLOGICAL SKILLS

 

In the present world developments in science and technology are influencing life of common man. For living effectively in a society dominated by communication and information technology it will be essential that students acquire skills for coping with everyday technologies and be information technology literate. Through appropriate learning experiences during the first ten years of schooling students will be given technological skills. Essential technological skills that should be developed in students in the primary and upper-primary and secondary stages have been given in the following

S.N.

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1.

Information Technology literacy

 

 

-Be able to write letters, and reports with texts, tables and graphics using word processor and printer.

- Be able to access information from the Internet and be able to communicate using E- mail.

To be assessed through test performance.

 

 

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HOUSEHOLD SKILLS

 

Except six to seven hours spent in the school, children spend rest of the time at home. The time at home is spent doing home work, playing, listening music and in helping the parents with household tasks. Facility in using modern electronic gadgets with proper safety measures and participation in household activities will make children confident, responsible and supportive to their parents and siblings. Such skills will be crucial when on growing up children become householders themselves.

S.N.

Skill/compe-tency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1.

Ability to operate household gadgets and perform household activities

- Be able to operate radio, television, toaster etc.

-Be able to take care of personal hygiene, cleaning of room, washing of uniform etc.

 - Be able to use safely electric iron for pressing school uniform.

- Be able to measure body temperature, room temperature using appropriate thermometer.

- Be able to maintain cleanliness at home and of surroundings.

 -Be able to connect appropriate electric wires to plugs, holders, switches etc. in domestic wiring.

-Be able to change safely LPG cylinder and handle safely situation when thee is leakage of gas etc.

-Be able to fix electric fuse in domestic wiring.

-Be able to cook food items such as rice, vegetables etc.

 -Observation

-Self evaluation

 

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COMMUNICATION SKILLS

 

 

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1.

Listening and speaking

- Be able to follow, comprehend and respond to instructions and questions at school and at home

-Be able to follow assembly proceedings, thoughts for the day, news, etc.

- Be able to comprehend and respond to instructions and questions and be able to interact confidently with in known persons

 -Be able to follow assembly programmes and contribute effectively to the same

 - Be able to take initiative in group discussion and pair discussion

-Be able to contribute and participate in assembly programme, short talk on current topics, thought for day, conduct quiz and in-house competition etc.

 - By observation and verbal appreciation

-By observation and verbal appreciation

2.

Ability to inquire and respond appropriately to simple inquiries relating to self and immediate environment

-Be able to show-and- tell using pictures, simple craft-work, models and charts etc.

-Be able to conduct surveys on contextual topics within the school and in the vicinity of home

-Be able to conduct survey on contextual topics within the school and in the vicinity of home

 

-Be able to take part in discussions, prepare surveys reports etc.

 

-By observation and appreciation

3.

Ability to speak clearly and appropriately with respect and affection

-Be able to role play using dialogue and body language, say between:- teacher-student, mother-daughter/son, brother-sisters, grandparent-child, etc.

-Be able to simulate and take part in lively debates on matters of social and academic interest e.g. environmental pollution, population growth, national integration etc.

-Be able to simulate and take part in lively debates on matters of social and academic interest e.g. environmental pollution, brain-drain national integration, dowry deaths, child labour etc.

-By observation and appreciation

4.

Vocabulary for effective use of language

-Learn new words using webs and mind maps, e.g. learning five new words a day and be able to use them in simple sentences.

-Be able to solve cross-word puzzles, take part in word-for-the-day, word attack etc.

-Be able to solve cross-word puzzles, take part in word-for-the-day, word attack etc.

-By observation and appreciation

5.

Creative expression

-Be able to give short speech, narrate a short story, present orally group work, describe scene at a railway platform, festivals etc.

-Be able to give extempore speech, take part in debates, present report of activities such as class picnic, excursions etc.

-Be able to give extempore speech, take part in debates, present report of activities such as class picnic and excursions etc.

-By observation and appreciation

6.

Social awareness

-Be able to read newspapers and form opinion on issues such as anti-fire cracker campaign, 'no plastic bag' campaign etc.

-Be able to read newspapers and magazines and form opinion on issues such as adult literacy, child labour, Aids, say-no-to-polythene-bags, Chipko-movement, need of traffic discipline' etc.

-Be able to read newspapers and magazine and form opinion on issues such as adult literacy, child labour, Aids, say-no-to polythene-bags, Chipko-movement, need of traffic discipline etc.

-Through debates and competition

7.

Analytical ability

-Be able to take part in activities such as science club, computer games etc.

-Be able to take part in activities involving collection and interpretation of qualitative data on issues of current affairs such as radioactive waste, pollution, conservation etc.

-Be able to take part in activities involving collection and interpretation of qualitative data on issues of current such as radioactive waste, pollution and conservation etc.

-Through evaluation of records

8.

Aesthetic appreciation

-Be able to enjoy music, visit to art gallery

-be able to take part in fine arts and performing arts

-Be able to enjoy music, visit to art gallery

-be able to take part in fine arts and performing arts

-Be able to enjoy music, visit to art gallery

-be able to take part in fine arts and performing arts

-Maintaining records of achievers

9.

Emotional abilities and inter-personal skills

-Be able to express through poems and read them aloud in the class or in assembly, be able to make friends, take care of animals and plants, be sensitive to feelings of elders

-Be able to express trough poems and read them aloud in the class or in assembly, be able to make friends, take care of animals and plants, be sensitive to feelings of elders

-Be able to express through poems and read them aloud in the class, be able to make friends, take care of animals and plants, be sensitive to feelings of elders

-Maintaining records of achievers

10.

Developing writing ability

-Be able to write short story, essay, poems, travelogue, personal diary etc.

 

 -Be able to write imaginative, humorous, jokes, poems, stories etc.

-Be able to write short story, essay, poems, travelogue, personal diary etc.

 

-Be able to write imaginative and humorous jokes, poems, stories etc.

 -Be able to take part in on-the sport-writing competition etc.

-Be able to write short story, essay, poems, travelogue, personal diary and speech on socially relevant issues etc.

 

 

 

 

 

-Through written tests

 -Through written competitions, tests and debates

11.

Ability to write messages, letters, postcards, notes, descriptions, etc.

-Be able to write letters to parents, friends, class-teacher, take down telephone messages etc.

-Be able to write application for leave to class-teacher, telegrams, letters to the friends etc.

 

 -To be able write report of group work etc. project reports.

-To be to write formal letters, letter to editor on issues activities involving school, community, nation etc.

 

12.

Civic sense, environmental awareness and friendly attitude

-Be able to keep the classroom clean, help parents in keeping a clean home with clean toilet etc.

-Be able to share common facilities such as school canteen by forming a queue etc.

-Reinforce it further

 

-Be able to organise campaigns such as tree conversation and have a positive attitude for all living forms

 

-Oral feedback and appreciation

13.

Leadership qualities

-Be able to take part in excursions

-Be able to control the class in the absence of the teacher etc.

-

-Reinforce it further

-Be able to help persons in distress by even taking personal risk etc.

-Be able to organise excursions, assembly activities prefectoral role etc.

-Be able to help persons in distress by even taking personal risk etc.

 

14.

Religious tolerance

-Be able to appreciate religious diversities and have respect for different religions and faith of friends

-Reinforce it further

-Be able to take part in religion functions of friends living to different communities

-Oral feedback and appreciation

 

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PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS

 

 

S.N

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1

Handling emotions

Be able to overcome negative emotions like fear, anger, and aggression and develop positive emotions such as love, empathy, tolerance etc.

Be able to confide freely in parents and teachers.

Be able to overcome negative emotions like fear, anger, and aggression and develop positive emotions such as love, empathy, tolerance etc.

Be able to confide freely in parents and teachers

Be able to overcome negative emotions like fear, anger, and aggression and develop positive emotions such as love, empathy, tolerance etc

Be able to confide freely in parents and teachers

Group activities, role playing

One way observation-noting their behavior and interpreting it in the class.

2.

Coping with stress

-Be able to cope with day-to-day stresses such as sibling rivalry and working parents etc.

-Be able to cope with day-to-day stresses such as sibling rivalry and working parents etc.

-Be able to cope with day-to-day stresses like sibling rivalry and working parents etc.

 

.Self-description questionnaire Introspection Games & sports House activities

3.

Self-confidence

-Be confident of one's competence

-Be confident of one's competence and take decisions and be accountable and responsible for one's actions.

-Be confident of one's competence and take decisions and be accountable and responsible for one's actions.

Project method

Practical activities.

4.

Resourcefulness skills

-Be able to assist in organising school and family functions.

-Be able to take part in camps, excursions, picnics - --Be able to use resources maximally and meaningfully.

-Be able to contribute to exhibitions.

-Be able to assist in organising school and family functions.

-Be able to take part in camps, excursions, picnics - --Be able to use resources maximally and meaningfully.

-Be able to arrange exhibits.

-Be able to assist in organising school and family functions.

-Be able to take part in camps, excursions, picnics - --Be able to use resources maximally and meaningfully.

-Be able to contribute to exhibitions.

Organising functions

Excursions

Exhibitions

5.

Dignity of work

-Be able to participate in Socially Useful Productive Work. activities like cleaning of school area, home, school bus etc.

-Help parents with household chores such as setting the table for meals, taking the garbage out and disposing it at a proper place

-Attend to visitors and guests at home.

-Be able to participate in Socially Useful Productive Work. activities like cleaning of school area, home, school bus etc.

-Help parents with household chores such as setting the table for meals, taking the garbage out and disposing it at a proper place

-Attend to visitors and guests at home.

-Be able to participate in Socially Useful Productive Work. activities like cleaning of school area, home, school bus etc.

-Help parents with household chores such setting the table for meals, taking the garbage out and disposing it at a proper place

-Help in maintaining school facilities such as laboratories, library, resource rooms etc

-Assist in organisation of school day and family functions

-Attend to visitors and guests at home.

Monitoring of performance of SUPW activities

 

 

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LEARNING TO LEARN

 

The following category of skills are for preparing each child as a lifelong learner, for drawing the maximum out of life, for making learning not a drudgery or a burdensome task but a joyful experience in the process of growth of an individual.

S.N

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1

Willingness to learn

-Be able to take interest in learning, become inquisitive and acquire self motivation.

- Be able to take interest in learning, become inquisitive and acquire self-motivation.

-Be able to gather information, analyse it and use it for solving some problem.

- Be able to take interest in learning, become inquisitive and acquire self-motivation.

-Be able to gather information, analyse it and use it for solving some problem.

-Become an autonomous learner.

Project work

Assigning problems that require information beyond the textbook content and processing skills such as pattern recognition etc.

2.

Ability to remain focussed

-Be able to complete time-bound tasks/ assignment in time.

.Be able to sit still.

-Be able to listen attentively to a story / narrate it by recalling it from memory.

- Be able to remain focussed on theme of a discussion etc.

-Be able to complete time-bound tasks/ assignment in time.

-Be able to sit still, if required.

-Be able to listen attentively to a story / narrate it by recalling it from memory.

-Be able to concentrate on a given task and remain focussed on theme of a discussion etc.

-Be able to complete time-bound tasks/ assignment in time.

.Be able to sit still, if required.

-Be able to listen attentively to a story / narrate it by recalling it from memory.

-Be able to concentrate on a given task and remain focussed on theme of a discussion etc.

Open-book exam/ assignment

Debate

Recitation of poems/ stories.

Thematic group discussion.

3

Apply knowledge

-Be able to:

Understand problems,

Analyse them,

Find their solution within the available resources

-Be able to:

Understand problems,

Analyse them,

Find their solution within the available resources

-Be able to:

Understand problems,

Analyse them,

Find their solution within the available resources

Group discussion

Group problem solving

4.

Cooperation & a healthy sense of competition

-Be able to participate in group activities such as peer group learning, carry out assignments through cooperative effort, be supportive etc.

-Be able to participate in group activities such as peer group learning, carry out assignments through cooperative effort, be supportive etc.

-Be able to participate in group activities such as peer group learning, carry out assignments through cooperative effort, be supportive etc.

-Be able to appreciate better achievement and have a healthy attitude for taking part in competitive activities.

Group activities

House competitions

 

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HEALTHFUL LIVING

 

Healthful living requires physical, mental and spiritual development. A healthy mind resides in a healthy body. Skills needed for healthful living, which should be developed in each student in the first ten years of general education are given as below:

S.N.

Skill/Competency

Primary

Upper Primary

Secondary

Evaluation

1

Personal hygiene

-Be able to take care of personal hygiene, identify various parts of the body and be able to take care of them by washing and cleaning them every day.

-Wear neat and clean clothes including undergarments.

-Keep nails and hair trimmed,

-Take care of uniform, shoes, socks etc.

-Be able to take care of personal hygiene

-Wear neat and clean clothes including undergarments.

-Keep nails and hair trimmed,

-Take care of uniform, shoes, socks etc.

-Be able to take care of personal hygiene

-Wear neat and clean clothes including undergarments.

-Keep nails and hair trimmed,

-Take care of uniform, shoes, socks etc.

Informal evaluation.

2.

Healthy food habits

-Eat food at proper times and avoid eating open food and fruits, and drink only safe water.

-Eat food at proper times and avoid eating open food and fruits, and drink only safe water.

-Know food items such as vegetables, fruits, vegetables etc. which are rich in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, different vitamins.

-Be aware of essential ingredients of daily food and be able to select balanced and nourishing diet and avoid junk food by appreciation of its ill effects.

-Eat food at proper times and avoid eating open food and fruits, and drink only safe water.

-Know food items such as vegetables, fruits, vegetables etc. which are rich in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, different vitamins.

-Be aware of essential ingredients of daily food and be able to select balanced and nourishing diet and avoid junk food by appreciation of its ill effects.

By observing the food habits etc.

3.

Cleanliness

Maintain home, classroom and their surroundings clean.

Keep the school garden, canteen area, play field, toilets and drinking water place clean.

Maintain home, classroom and their surroundings clean.

Keep the school garden, canteen area, play field, toilets and drinking water place clean.

Maintain home, classroom and their surroundings clean.

Keep the school garden, canteen area, play field, toilets and drinking water place clean.

 

4.

Friendship with Eco System

Know the local plants, trees, animals, birds and natural resources like lake, river etc..

Understand that plants & trees purify the environment by the process of photosynthesis.

Have awareness of causes of pollution of air, water and the local eco-system by pollutants such as industrial waste, sewage, automobile exhaust, radioactive waste, fire crackers etc.

 

 

 

Understand that plants & trees purify the environment by the process of photosynthesis.

Have awareness of causes of pollution of air, water and the local eco-system by pollutants such as industrial waste, sewage, automobile exhaust,

radioactive waste, fire crackers etc.

 

 

 

1. By observing change in behavior of students in informal way.

5.

 

Harmful effects of smoking, alcoholism and drugs

Become aware that smoking is hazardous to health

Become aware that smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of drugs are harmful for health.

Become aware of common drugs e.g. tranquilizers, narcotics hallucinogen, stimulants, sedatives etc.

Become aware that drinking alcohol damages the digestive tract and kidneys.

Become aware that smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of drugs are harmful for health.

Become aware of common drugs e.g. tranquilizers, narcotics hallucinogen, stimulants, sedatives etc.

Become aware that drinking alcohol damages the digestive tract and kidneys.

Essay competition

Debate and declamation Quiz contest

Poster competition

6.

Common diseases their causes and prevention

Become aware of common diseases such as cholera, malaria, chickenpox, measles, cold & cough, and ailments such as stomach-ache, headache, food poisoning, dehydration and their first-aid treatment.

Become aware of prophylactic treatment such as vaccination against diseases.

Become aware of common diseases such as cholera, malaria, chickenpox, measles, cold & cough, and ailments such as stomach-ache, headache, food poisoning, dehydration and their first-aid treatment.

Become aware of prophylactic treatment such as vaccination against diseases.

Become aware of common diseases such as cholera, malaria, chickenpox, measles, cold & cough, and ailments such as stomach-ache, headache, food poisoning, dehydration and their first-aid treatment.

Become aware of prophylactic treatment such as vaccination against diseases.

 

7.

Population control

 

Become aware of advantages of small family, ill effects of high population growth, methods of family planning

Become aware of advantages of small family, ill effects of high population growth, methods of family planning, Values related to successful married life, child bearing and rearing and other aspects of family life.

 

8.

Healthy leisure time habits

Develop interest in reading epics such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, folk tales and biographies of great persons

Become aware of Advantages/Disadvantages of seeing cinema/ TV.

Be able to select good reading materials from newspaper, magazines and to be able to avoid reading cheap and prurient materials. Develop hobbies like gardening, fine art, singing, dancing, swimming & playing games etc.

Become aware of Advantages/Disadvantages of seeing cinema/ TV.

Be able to select good reading materials from newspaper, magazines and to be able to avoid reading cheap and prurient materials. Develop hobbies like gardening, fine art, singing, dancing, swimming & playing games etc.

9.

Adolescence education

 

Know about biological, psychological, socio-cultural and moral aspects of human sexuality.

Become prepared for coping with the stress and strains of the adolescence period and to be able to lead healthy life during this period.

Know the functions of male & female human reproductive systems.

Develop healthy relationship between classmates of opposite sex.

 

Know about biological, psychological, socio-cultural and moral aspects of human sexuality.

Become prepared for coping with the stress and strains of the adolescence period and to be able to lead healthy life during this period.

Know the functions of male & female human reproductive systems.

Develop healthy relationship between classmates of opposite sex.

 

Through observing change in behavior.

10.

Knowledge about sexual abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS etc.

 

 

Become aware about unsafe sex and birth control practices. Modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS and preventive measures.

Be sensitive for care of people having HIV/AIDS.

 

11.

Good habits and mannerism such as proper posture and bearing in walking, sitting, reading, sleeping, etc.

Practice good habits such as early to bed and early to rise, morning walk, and practice them.

Develop correct postures of standing,, sitting and reading with minimum strain to eyes and body. Develop stamina and good physique by practicing Yoga and performing aerobic exercises; mass P.T and playing games and sports.

Practice good habits such as early to bed and early to rise, morning walk, and practice them.

Develop correct postures of standing,, sitting and reading with minimum strain to eyes and body. Develop stamina and good physique by practicing Yoga and performing aerobic exercises; mass P.T and playing games and sports.

Practice good habits such as early to bed and early to rise, morning walk, and practice them.

Develop correct postures of standing,, sitting and reading with minimum strain to eyes and body. Develop stamina and good physique by practicing Yoga and performing aerobic exercises; mass P.T and playing games and sports.

 

 

 

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